Wednesday, 28 May 2014

Mangosten, Queen of Fruits

            Selama penelitian skripsi berkali-kali ganti objek penelitian. Bikin gerah n cemas tapi apa mau dikata, pembimbing sudah bertitah. Salah satu “korban” objek penelitian saya adalah buah manggis. Berikut adalah sedikit penjabaran tentang buah manggis dalam ringkasan “calon skripsi yang gak sempat dilahirkan”.
Mangosteen is also known as the Queen of Fruits.  Recently, mangosteen is becoming popular due to its active compounds, especially xanthones.  It has been widely applied in pharmaceutical interest.  Mangosteen is tropical plant which is notoriously difficult to grow.  The tree can grow up to 82 feet tall. 
            The fruit is composed of 17% of outer pericarp, 48% of inner pericarp, 31% of flesh and 4% of cap.  The pericarp encloses the juicy white flesh and edible seed which is segmented into 5 – 7 segment.  The amount of segment depend on the total of mangosteen seed.  The colour of pericarp depend on the maturity of mangosteen.  It is become dark purple when ripe.  The dark purple colour of mangosteen pericarp is mainly due to anthocyanin content.  The inner pericarp is thicker and more tender than outer pericarp.
Mangosteen parts are more effective than cinnamon and citrus oil in againts some Gram positive bacteria (L. monocytogenes and S. aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (E. coli and Salmonella sp.). The pericarp extract of mangosteen showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lutus were 50 μg/mL, 200 μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL, respectively. 
The main part of mangosteen consist of flesh, inner and outer pericarp.  They contain active compounds that has been widely applied as suplement or food formulation.  The inner and outer pericarp of mangosteen contain phenolic compound and anthocyanin in the large amount.  The highest antioxidant activity was found in the inner pericarp of mangosteen. 
            There was more than 90% xanthones (α-mangostin and γ-mangostin) from the extract of mangosteen pericarp.  A result showed that the xanthones exhibited an enhancement of  natural killer (NK) cell activity in mouse model, in addition α-mangostin also showed cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay.  The conclusion of the study was xanthones are potensially to be developed as anti-cancer substance. Mangosteen is becoming popular due to its substantial amount of active compound.  It has been widely used as folk medicine and processed as functional food formulations and supplements.  The study about bioavailability of xanthones from 100% mangosteen juice has been done.  It was determined in healthy adult by measuring the free and conjugated xanthones in serum and urine.  The result showed that xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed when ingested along with a high – fat meal.
            Mangosteen juice mixed with grape and roselle has been produced. Chaovanalikit et al. (2012) reported that the fresh mixed juice contains 39.26 mg GAE/100 mL of total phenolic and 3.71 mg Cyn-3-Glu/100 mL of anthocyanin content.  The mixed juice also dried by using spray dryer and vacumm dryer. The mixed juice which was dried with spray dryer had higher total phenolic compound and anthocyanin content than vacumm dryer. The tannin extract from mangosteen pericarp has also been utilized. The tannin extract is obtained by extracting the mangosteen pericarp sized 20 and 30 mesh with the mixture of water and 95% ethanol (1:1 v/v) at 80oC for 2 hours and applied as protein precipitation in wine.  The result showed that the tannin extract exhibited the ability to precipitate protein on wine and also increases the wine astringency.


Akao, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Iinuma, M., Nozawa, Y. 2008. Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen.  Int. J. Mol. Sci., 9: 355-370.
Chaovanalikit, A., Mingmuang, A., Kitbunluewit, T., Choldumrongkool, N., Sondee, J., Chupratum, S. 2012. Anthocyanin and total phenolic content of mangosteen and effect of processing on the quality of mangosteen products. Int. Food. Res. J., 19(3): 1047-1053.
Chitchumroonchokchai, C., Riedl, K.M., Suksumrarn, S., Clinton, S.K., Kinghorn, A.D., Failla, M.L. 2012. Xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed and partially conjugated by healthy adults. J. Nutr., 1-6.
Hulton, W. 1997. Tropical Fruit of Thailand. Asia Book. Thailand.
Moosopin, K., Wetthaisong, T., Seeratchakot, L., Kokluecha, W. 2010. Tannin extraction from mangosteen peel for protein precipitation in wine. KKU. Res. J., 15(5): 377-385.
Palakawong, C., Sophanodora, P., Pisuchpen, S., Phongpaichit, S. 2010. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) parts and some essential oils. Food. Res. Int., J 17: 583-589.
Vishnu, P., Jainu, M., Mohan, S.K., Saraswathi, P., Gopan, C.S. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. IJPSR., 1(8): 278-281.

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